Design and optimization of low power EPC C1G2 RFID tag baseband to improve sensitivity and yield under process variations
by Yunxiao Ling
M.Phil. Electronic and Computer Engineering
xx, 77 p. : ill. ; 30 cm
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is becoming increasingly prevalent in logistic management, public transportation payment, and animal identification. However, for long distance applications, there are three major factors limiting its further deployment:...[ Read more ]
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is becoming increasingly prevalent in logistic management, public transportation payment, and animal identification. However, for long distance applications, there are three major factors limiting its further deployment:
1. Dense reader/tag environment: a reader should be capable of managing a group of tags and avoiding interference from other readers.
2. Distance: long distance read/write is a required feature in logistics. Tags should operate with extremely low power to achieve a longer distance.
3. Low Cost: disposable tags are required in large volume deployments. To achieve low cost, compact tag design and high parametric yield are necessary.
To address these problems, we employ EPC C1G2 standard as our tag standard to achieve high performance in dense reader/tag environment. An operation-state based low-power tag baseband design is proposed by decomposing and mapping the tag signal flow into a pipeline asynchronous system. Furthermore, the power implications for each operation state of the tag are studied and a system level power optimization scheme is proposed to further improve the tag sensitivity by load power shaping and operation scheduling. Last but not least, modern RFID tags utilize extensive voltage scaling to achieve low power consumption which makes the tag design more sensitive to process variations in advanced technology. To achieve a high timing yield, we employ the state-of-the-art statistical static timing analysis (SSTA) tools and extend the existing SSTA algorithms to incorporate input slew and output load information. The proposed linear SSTA with slew distribution propagation demonstrates a reasonable accuracy in timing yield prediction and hence can help to achieve a high yield tag baseband design.