This study investigates the reasons and the symbolic representations of Choson's Chonchu Samyong (revering the Zhou and longing for the Ming) and how this Chonchu Samyong's thought influences the relation between Qing and Choson....[ Read more ]
This study investigates the reasons and the symbolic representations of Choson's Chonchu Samyong (revering the Zhou and longing for the Ming) and how this Chonchu Samyong's thought influences the relation between Qing and Choson.
A careful examination of the Confucian legitimacy and the hwa-i thoughts reflects the historical roots of Choson's Chonchu Samyong. Though Choson has a totally different psychological and cultural attitude towards Ming and Qing even both dynasties are its suzerain states. Precisely, since Choson considers Ming Dynasty as the Central Kingdom of the Chinese World, it shows much more respect to Ming. Mohwa (the admiration of Chinese culture) and Sadae (the recognition of regarding China as its suzerain state) are Choson's attitude to Ming. On the other hand, since Choson considers Qing dynasty barbarians, and it denies itself as a tributary state of Qing. Choson's different attitudes towards Ming and Qing is basically the reason contributing to the rise of the thought of Chonchu Samyong.
The second part of this dissertation shows that the symbolic representations of Choson's Chonchu Samyong are manifested in three different aspects. First, a number of temples and altars, such as Taebodan, Mamdongmyo and Taetongmyo, are built by Choson Kings, Confucianists and descendents of the adherents of Ming, to express their longing for Ming. Second, even though Qing reign titles are adopted formally, the Ming Chongzhen and Yongli's reign titles are nevertheless used earnestly. Third, books about Song/Ming history and Choson's Chonchu Samyong are compiled officially and privately. All these representations aim at strengthening Choson's succeeding the legitimacy of Ming China.
Lastly, the influence of Choson's Chonchu Samyong thought on the relations between Qing and Choson is examined from a totally new perspective. Precisely, in addition to investigating the relations between Qing and Choson from the traditional tributary system, this paper proposes that Choson's antagonistic attitude towards Qing should also be considered. As a matter of fact, Choson's superficial loyalty and its internal antagonistic attitudes towards Qing characterize well its relation with Qing.